Category Archives: 114

Don’t Fence Me In

An interesting lawsuit was recently filed by a group of radio stations over the digital retransmissions of terrestrial broadcasts.  VerStandig Broadcasting filed a declaratory judgment action against sound recording performance royalty collection society SoundExchange over a specific exception in the Copyright Act that limits the exclusive public performance right in sound recordings to be exclude retransmissions of AM/FM broadcasts within 150 miles of the original over-the-air transmission.  Specifically, Section 114(d) limits the scope of a copyright owner’s exclusive right in the public performance of sound recordings by means of a digital audio transmission.

The performance of a sound recording publicly by means of a digital audio transmission, other than as part of an interactive service, is not an infringement … if the performance is part of … a retransmission of a nonsubscription broadcast transmission: Provided, That, in the case of a retransmission of a radio station’s broadcast transmission … the radio station’s broadcast transmission is not willfully or repeatedly retransmitted more than a radius of 150 miles from the site of the radio broadcast transmitter … . 17 U.S.C. § 114(d)(1)(B)(i).

VerStandig claims that when Congress created the retransmission exception, “geo-fencing” technology, which is technology that “determines a recipient’s physical location by comparing a receiving computer’s IP address, WiFi and GSM access point, GPS coordinates, or some combination against a real world map of those virtual addresses,” wasn’t available to limit the recipients of AM/FM broadcasters’ retransmissions.  According to VerStandig, “When data is geo-fenced, only recipients physically located within the authorized locations can access the data over the Internet. Recipients who are physically located outside the geo-fence who attempt to access the data over the Internet receive a message explaining that the data is unavailable.”  Today, according to VerStandig, “Geo-fencing is a proven technology. It is used by the gaming industry to restrict access to online gambling to recipients physically located in jurisdictions where gaming is legal. And it is used by marketers for the direct advertising of products to persons physically located in targeted markets.”

VerStandig sent SoundExchange a letter notifying SoundExchange of VerStandig’s intention to stop paying royalties on performances of retransmissions within 150 miles of the original transmission.  SoundExchange apparently responded by stating that “the 150-mile exemption applies only ‘to retransmissions of broadcasts by cable systems to their subscribers or retransmissions by broadcasters over the air’ and that if the 150-mile exemption ‘did apply to [VerStandig’s] proposed simulcasting’ [VerStandig] would nevertheless need to pay royalties for copies or reproductions of the sound recordings in the FM broadcasts that it live streams.”

With respect to the first argument, the Senate Report on the Digital Performance in Sound Recordings Act appears to reject this conclusion.  The Senate Report says

Section 114(d)(1)(B)(i) (retransmission of radio signals within 150-
mile radius of transmitter)
Under this provision, retransmissions of a radio station within a
150-mile radius of the site of that station’s transmitter are exempt,
whether retransmitted on a subscription or a nonsubscription
basis, provided that they are not part of an interactive service.
This provision does not, however, exempt the willful or repeated
retransmission of a radio station’s broadcast transmission more
than a 150-mile radius from the radio station’s transmitter. The
Committee recognizes that the 150-mile limit could serve as a dangerous
trap for the uninitiated or inattentive. To ensure against
that possibility, section 114(d)(1)(B)(i) provides that a retransmission
beyond the 150-mile radius will fall outside the exemption
only if the retransmission is willful or repeated. The Committee
intends the phrase ‘‘willful or repeated’’ to be understood in
the same way that phrase was used in section 111 of the Act, as
explained in the House Report on the 1976 Act, H. Rept. 1476, 94th
Cong., 2d sess. 93 (1976).
Pursuant to section 114(d)(1)(B)(i)(I), the 150-mile limitation does
not apply when a nonsubscription broadcast transmission by an
FCC-licensed station is retransmitted on a nonsubscription basis by
an FCC-licensed terrestrial broadcast station, terrestrial translator,
or terrestrial repeater. In other words, a radio station’s broadcast
transmission may be retransmitted by another FCC-licensed broadcast
station (or translator or repeater) on a nonsubscription basis
without regard to the 150-mile restriction.

In addition to appearing to generally support VerStandig’s position, the highlighted language appears to capture TuneIn and iHeartRadio’s aggregation of simulcast transmissions.  As I understand it, the bulk of listening of retransmitted terrestrial broadcasts on services like iHeart are people listening to their old home-town station in their new town; e.g., I can listen to KDKA from Pittsburgh here in Oakland.

With respect to SoundExchange’s second argument (i.e., needing a license to make reproductions), this may run head-long into a very interesting fair use defense.  If Congress intended radio broadcasters to retransmit digitally their analog signals without paying a royalty under Sec. 114, could Congress have intended for the record labels to be able to demand a royalty (or sue for statutory damages for copyright infringement) for making ephemeral copies under Sec. 112?  My gut tells me that can’t be what Congress intended, but that might not matter is the law is otherwise unambiguous on this point.

The Complaint is here.